Some quick translations, OO PHP to C#

So a recent project has facilitated me brushing up on my C# – so I thought I would share some basic translations of things that can be frustrating when you know the usual programming principles (object orientated programming), but not all the syntax.

A quick couple of points to note:

  1. C# is a strictly typed language, that means you have to know about what your variables are going to be, and yes, you have to declare them somewhere sensible
  2. Accessing methods and properties within your class does not require usage of $this – you’re talking about true scope of variables and methods, so you don’t have to worry about it
  3. Public, protected and private are essentially the same
  4. You have to declare the return types on every method, none of this return an object or false stuff
  5. Namespacing is essentially the same as if you were following the PSR-4 standard
  6. Everything, including strings, are objects
  7. A single quote and a double quote are fundamentally different things

Declaring a variable

Okay, so starting with the basics, declaring a variable is basically the same, except you have to declare the type, so declaring age as a variable, integer, with the value of 25 would look like this in PHP:

$age = 25;

However, in C# it would look like this

int age = 25;

Moving into this being a property in a class, you must rather than optionally, or have to if you’re conforming to PSR-2, so in PHP it looks like this

public $age = 25;

In C# it’s going to look like this:

public int age = 25;

Declaring methods

Okay this is an easy one in PHP, it looks something like this. Using PHP 7.1 we can strictly type the return.

public function myMethod(MyClassOne &$argumentByReference, MyClassTwo $argumentByValue) : ObjectClass

{

    // Do something in your method here

}

// This would be called by doing something like
$object->myMethod($parsedByReference, $parsedByValue);

This one gets slightly different when translated into C# for a couple of reasons. You must declare the types of the parameter, the type of the response(s), it also gets a bit different when calling the method too:

public ObjectClass myMethod(ref MyClassOne argumentByReference, MyClassTwo argumentByValue)

{

    // Do something in your method here

}

// Now calling your method would look slightly different

Object.myMethod(ref parsedByReference, parsedByValue);

Using Objects

Instantiating objects isn’t much different either, really; it looks different but that’s because it’s strictly typed.

Main difference between use statements in PHP and C# (other than that it is using in C#) is that you use a namespace, the classes contained therein (this namespace only, not its children) are automatically available.

In PHP I want to include a class and then instantiate it, will look something like this:

use Vendor\Project\Namespace\ClassName;

// Then you have all of your usual declarations, which we'll get to

$myObject = new ClassName();

However when you want to do this in C# it looks something like this:

using Vendor\Project\Namespace;

// Then all of your usual declarations

ClassName myObject = new ClassName();

Declaring Classes, using Inheritance and Interfaces

This gets a bit different, but only syntactically. We’re going to create Person as an abstract class, this will be extended by the Employee class. Employee is going to implement an interface called Emailable.

For the sake of ease I’ve not separated these into different files

In PHP it would look like this:

abstract class Person{

    // Shared functionality here

}
interface Emailable{

    // Interface requirements here

}

class Employee extends Person implements Emailable{

    // Employee functionality, including Emailable requirements, in here

}

In C# however it would look like this

namespace ObjectOrientatedPrinciples.MyExample
 {
    abstract public class Person
    {
        
    }
    interface Emailable
    {
        
    }
    public class Employee : Person, Emailable
    {
        
    }
 }

You will see from this that C# doesn’t necessarily draw the distinction between classes being extended and interfaces being implemented.

Arrays and Lists

This is actually the only thing I found to be a little bit painful, however there is a decent tutorial on arrays on the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN)

Closing Off

I’ll leave it at that for tonight. But a quick few bits that I thought might help someone out, it would’ve helped me if I could’ve found this article this morning. Though admittedly probably only saved me an hour or so. Not the point though, here it is 🙂

Tips for commercial WordPress, and open source, development

Hi everyone

So I’ve been using content management systems on and off for the best part of 10 years. From the by-gone days of PHP Nuke and when content management systems like PHP Fusion were all the rage. To using more modern, and definitely more widely adopted systems like Joomla and, of course, WordPress; and just to throw other open source stuff into the mix, platforms like Moodle.

Now I’ve returned to using WordPress on a daily basis, but from a different perspective; I don’t do too much development on WordPress personally; my skill set generally lies in building things on frameworks such as CodeIgniter and Laravel, if not bespoke. But I do use WordPress to the extent of managing multisite installations, managing production stability and servers, as well as deployments and migrations.

Having been in the unique position to pick up some legacy code in my time, and seen what does and does not make a WordPress site easy to work on, manage and maintain; I thought I would put together some tips for building WordPress sites, and functionality, which will stand the test of time.

1. Never modify the core

This is a deadly serious one. No matter what you’re working on it should have a specific way of extending functionality, whether through plugins and themes, extensions or a specific namespace where modifications should be added, never, ever, ever modify the core. The same applies to the core code on a plugin.

The reasons for this are really simple; you probably don’t know and understand the full architecture or what you might break by changing this, and more importantly the biggest strength of using something open source is that updates are generally frequently available. The moment you change something in the core you’re going to sabotage any upgrades; you will have to make the choice. Either update the software (absolutely critical) and lose your changes, or don’t update the software and risk leaving bugs, security vulnerabilities, and all kinds of other stuff in there. Not a good position to be in.

2. Choose the right one

WordPress is the most widely adopted content management system in the world. Impressive, right? And technically, yes, anything can be built on it. In the same way any system can be built using .txt files for data storage. It can be done, but that doesn’t mean it should be.

I’ve laboured this point a few times in a few articles and things, but a good developer will know the tools available to them and choose the best one for the job. It is worth spending six months for a content management system and blogging platform, that does exactly the same as WordPress? Of course not. Is it a good idea to build a secure intranet containing sensitive data about national security on WordPress? Of course not. It’s about knowing what’s available and making the best decision based on this.

This is a difficult one, however, as you need to choose the one that fits your needs right now, as well as being compatible with the long term visions of the site; or know from the start that a rebuild will be necessary.

3. Be wary of plugin dependencies

Why use plugin_function when cms_function does the same job, and is probably going to be better supported in the future? When installing plugins, extensions and add ons; always think about the eventualities? What if this plugin’s core is compromised and I need to disable it right now; what will break? What if the plugin stops being supported? How tied into using it am I right now? If you’re managing lots of websites, especially; be wary of the headache you’re going to have if you’re relying too heavily on too many plugins.

If you notice yourself using plugin X on every site you build, or relying on it super heavily, it might be worth doing one of a few things. Either building your own replacement, so you’re in control of the core. Or perhaps wrapping it in your own functionality, so if you want to swap it out, you can. Using a technique called Facading can help with this, hiding plugin functionality behind you facade means you can swap what’s behind the facade out if you need to.

Really the point here is don’t install things willy nilly, think about the dependency you’re creating on this plugin for your website, and how much of a pain it’s going to be if you want to remove it.

4. Always check the source

Depending on the project and the size reading the source code line for line probably isn’t going to be efficient; so that’s not what I’m suggesting here. By source I mean the author, the factory, the company; wherever it comes from. Make sure they’re trusted, WordPress, for example, examines all of the plugins and themes submitted to their public repositories and they’re pretty stringent on their standards, as well as ensuring they’re safe (from a security standpoint).

Most mainstream CMS have white hat security scanning tools that will uncover most, if not all, known security flaws and vulnerabilities. Running these can only be a good thing, as long as you act on the results you get.

5. Don’t be afraid to code things from scratch

There might not be a plugin which does what you want, or doesn’t do exactly what you want. You have 10 requirements from your client. Plugin X fulfils 9 of them. Do not try and hack it to fulfil the 10th, it will only go badly; honestly, I’ve been there and done it a bunch of times.

Just because you usually use X plugin and Y CMS, doesn’t mean you have to this time. Some things are best built from scratch, whether the whole site/software, or a specific functionality. Sometimes the best option is to get stuck in with coding the thing you want. You’d be surprised at how quick this can sometimes be. And just because your CMS offers a specific functionality doesn’t mean you have to use it. WordPress Custom Post Types are a beautiful example of this, as well as their taxonomies. These are both beautiful pieces of functionality; but they’re not the best way to store bespoke data, for example. They exist for a range of things, but primarily to give you a way to show bespoke content, like recipes, and linking them together in a specific way, dietary requirement for example. Storing anything that doesn’t fit into a custom post type and taxonomy doesn’t make sense, so don’t do it.

From procedural to object orientated, a tutorial

Hi there everyone

Something I’m often faced with, having lots of friends with varying degrees of programming experience, is how do (PHP) developers move from sub 25k roles to the higher end of the spectrum, the 35-60k developer roles.

Generally, in my experience, the are some key differences in the salary expectations and the skills you can expect for a developer demanding those salaries. These can be broadly summed up as below:

  • True understanding of object orientated programming
  • Knowledge and application of programming principles
  • Exposure to multiple technologies and ability to move around within them
  • Web application development vs website development (the difference between relying on browsers and being able to do things like offloading, queueing, sharding, true separation of concerns, performance optimisation, caching, all that stuff)

To this end I’ve had a decent number of developers ask me how to start working with classes, and work in an object oriented way. So I thought I would do a tutorial on this. I’m going to cover some design patterns, some PHP functionality and various other things.

This is going to be a long and wordy tutorial, but hopefully what it will do is give you some understanding in the differences between procedural and OO programming.

All code samples are available in this project on my GitHub

Step One: The Hardest Part

The first thing I am going to disclaim is simple: Please do not try to have a half procedural, half OOP project or system. It’s going to be an absolute nightmare to maintain!

Now that’s out of the way, let’s talk about some design basics. Avoid god classes! A god class is a class which has many, many responsibilities, it can do everything. In terms of a practical application of a God class think of an ecommerce system: if a single class is responsible for checking stock, adding items to your basket, emptying your basket, and the checkout process – it has far too much responsibility.

I always think it’s a good idea to follow the Single Responsibility Principle – to those new to this I simple explain it as follows:

A class should be responsible for a single job. If you can’t tell me, in a sentence, what it does; then it is almost definitely doing too much.

As such if you have a requirement for an ecommerce system as defined above, checking stock levels would be it’s own class. The point of this is so that:

  1. The class can be used throughout your project, anywhere that you need to check stock levels
  2. The class can be modified and know that all stock checking functionality happens through a single place
  3. Any business logic can be contained in a single place
  4. The class could be swapped out if needs be, again you know all functionality is encapsulated here

Encapsulation: Goes hand in hand with “DRY” (don’t repeat yourself). Basically bringing everything to do with a certain concern (i.e. stock checking) into a single place, rather than leaving it scattered throughout your code.

So you now have a basic idea of what you use a class for, and in what scenarios you would create a new class – basically, any time you need to get something done.

Now working with objects, as opposed to working with a bunch of variables, has some real perks.

NB: Throughout this article I am going to refer to “classes” and “objects”. For all intents and purposes a class is defined, an object is instantiated. Therefore my User class, once it physically exists, becomes an object, until that point it is a class.

If I have an “Order” object rather than a whole heap of variables or a massive multi-dimensional array, I can put functionality in there which I need, I can do decisions and logic based on information contained within that order. What you’re doing is neatly organising everything into it’s own compartments within your code.

The user may be hitting a button to “add to cart”, but in practice you might be doing all kinds of things; checking the stock level, applying voucher codes, modifying the stock level, calculating the value of the cart so far, all sorts. So this separation becomes invaluable.

However, the point of this part of the article is simple. It’s going to be really difficult to follow, and make almost no sense, to have a bunch of objects floating around a procedural execution. The reason for this is, again, simple; if you have some stuff procedural, and some wrapped in classes and objects; how the heck could I possibly know where to look?

Learning Point Two: Using and understanding the syntax

In this point we’re going to cover some basic concepts:

  1. Inheritance – abstracting and extending classes
  2. Interfaces – implementation and usages
  3. Properties, Methods, Privacy and Scope

Firstly, one of the beautiful things about classes is inheritance. Let’s take a basic example of a User. A User might be a Guest, a Member, a Moderator and an Administrator; but they almost definitely share a bunch of common functionalities, like having a user ID for example (though a guest’s would be 0 or null). You don’t want to have to write a whole heap of code to get the user ID a bunch of times, when it’s the same functionality. You want all of your different types of users to share this functionality, this is where inheritance comes in.

Inheritance

<?php

abstract class User
{
    protected $userId = 0;
    protected $isLoggedIn = true;
    protected $isStaff = false;
    public function getUserId()
    {
        return $this->userId;
    }
    public function isLoggedIn()
    {
        return $this->isLoggedIn;
    }
}

class Guest extends User
{
    protected $isLoggedIn = false;
}

class Member extends User{}

class Moderator extends Member
{
    protected $isStaff = true;
    public function hasPermission($permission)
    {
        // Some logic here and return TRUE or FALSE
    }
}

class Administrator extends Moderator
{
    public function hasPermission($permission)
    {
        return true; // Administrators can do anything
    }
}

See in GitHub

The handy thing about this is that everyone is a User. So if ever I try to manage some dependency and state that a User is required as an object, I can do this really easily, because everything extends off of User, or one of its derivatives.

Also everyone from Guest to Administrator has a getUserId method, which is quite handy and an isLoggedIn method, so it doesn’t matter if my factory returns me a Guest or an Administrator, the functionality is going to work.

Just to clarify some bits here. Guest::isLoggedIn is false, but Member::isLoggedIn (and everyone who extends Member, or Moderator) returns true. Moderator::isStaff returns true as does Administrator::isStaff (because of the inheritance).

Site note: You could never do: $user = new User(); Because User is defined as an abstract class, as such you could do $administrator = new Administrator(); (or any of the other classes)

Interfaces

An interface is, the best way I’ve heard it described, is the difference between plugging a socket into the wall, vs having to wire in your lamp by hand. You can define an interface on an object, to ensure it conforms to certain standards, basic example now of an Emailable interface.

This interface ensures that the entity, whatever it is (User, Customer, Employee, Organisation, Website) can be emailed, by specifying it must have some methods available to it.

In this example we can make anything we want emailable, by simply adding the methods defined and stating that this class implements the interface – now we can send an email to the fridge if we wish, as long as it can define those methods!

<?php

interface Emailable
{
    public function getRecipientName();
    public function getEmailAddress();
    public function acceptsHtmlEmail();
}

class Client implements Emailable
{
    public function getRecipientName()
    {
        return 'Very Important Company Plc';
    }
    public function getEmailAddress()
    {
        return 'someone.somewhere@clientwebsite.com';
    }
    public function acceptsHtmlEmail()
    {
        return true;
    }
}

class Employee implements Emailable
{
    public function getRecipientName()
    {
        return 'John Doe';
    }
    public function getEmailAddress()
    {
        return 'john.doe@ourcorporateemail.com';
    }
    public function acceptsHtmlEmail()
    {
        return false;
    }
}

Sample on GitHub

Implementing an interface: Simply means that we have defined an interface, and the class which implements that interface conforms to it. Then if we define Emailable as a type hint, PHP will force not only that the class implementing the interface, but also that any object parsed into an Emailable type hinted parameter conforms. Otherwise it’ll throw a hissy fit and not work

Scope!

The big one that catches a lot of new-to-OOP developers out is variable and method scope. So here is a quick and simple one:

  1. Public – these methods and properties can be accessed (as long as the object is instantiated) from anywhere that has access to the object
  2. Protected – these methods and properties can be accessed within this object (or derivatives)
  3. Private – These can only be accessed specifically within this class
  4. Static – These can be accessed from the class itself, without needing the instantiation of an object
  5. Constants – As in PHP itself, these never change

That’s the long and short of it. Word of warning! Always assume your code is going to be copied, recreated and used throughout a system and if it is open source by anyone anywhere in any way they feel like it. So be very careful what you expose as public, once it’s public you have to assume code is relying on it, and as such ensure you are backward compatible – what I’m saying is it is easier to change $myProperty and myMethod to be public later, if they were protected before, than to change them from public to protected – because who knows what you might break!

Accessing properties can be done as follows:

Please do not try to run this code, it won’t work 🙂

<?php

class Scope
{

    // I will never change
    const GITHUBURL = 'https://github.com/johnothecoder';

    // I can be called from the class, without instantiation, and can be shared across multiple instances
    public static $fullName = 'Matt Johnson';

    // I can be access from anywhere the object exists
    public $alias = 'JohnoTheCoder';

    // I can only be accessed from within Scope or a class which extends Scope
    protected $name = 'Matt Johnson';

    // I can be called from anywhere
    public function getAlias()
    {
        return $this->alias;
    }

    // I can be only be called within Scope (or classes which extend scope)
    protected function getName()
    {
        return $this->name;
    }

}

// Executing some code

echo Scope::GITHUBURL;
echo Scope::$fullName;

$scope = new Scope();
echo $scope->alias;
echo $scope->getAlias();

// But I can't do this
echo $scope->name;
// Or this
echo $scope->getName();

As always, sample available on GitHub

I can’t really talk you through the full spec of this one, as there’s not much to talk through, really it’s just a way of showing you what can and can’t be done within the scopes of an object.


Hopefully this article has been of some use to those of you looking to get into the big wide world of object orientated programming with PHP. Next time I will be covering how to use Dependency Injection, the Factory and Service locator pattern and polymorphism to your advantage 🙂

Thanks for reading!

Pure OS: The way forward?

Tonight is just a quick one, not my usual essay. I was just curious to see what other people though. Being a PHP Developer I primarily work within LAMP environments. Occasionally having swapped out Apache for Nginx, but I am by far a specialist.

Until recently I was able to jump around through the Linux command line and do whatever I needed to without much issue, but nothing heavy.

I decided, as I often do, that I wanted to expand my skill set and start looking at pure OS, doing everything from scratch, how hard could it be, right? Previously I had used control panels like cPanel and Plesk to make management easy, as I’ve been offloading mail management to the likes of Office 365 and Google Suite, because they’re awesome at it and provide drive solutions, I figured there wasn’t that much really left for my server to manage.

So I put on my big boy pants and launched a Droplet with Digital Ocean and got learning how to set up and manage my own LAMP stack environments. I’ve spent a bit of time learning a few bits, and realised a few things, which I thought I would share. I’m by no means an expert, but these are just some soundbites I’ve picked up

  1. Setting up LAMP stack isn’t difficult
  2. Neither is setting up SFTP and Mail (though I’m dubious on mail and will leave it to the pros!)
  3. Neither is setting up SSL (seriously, look up LetsEncrypt!)
  4. Control panels are heavy!
  5. You really don’t need much on your server to do basic website stuff
  6. If you keep it lean, tiny servers can do amazing things

If you’re a developer, and have never tried to build and manage your own servers, seriously give it a go.

On a side note, some other useful tips and guides – please take heed – this isn’t new knowledge to me by any means, but thought it might be useful if you stumble across this article.

  1. Disable root login access!
  2. Chroot your FTP users
  3. Only install what you NEED. If you’re not doing anything with SFTP (because you’re only using git, for example), don’t install it
  4. Research what you’re installing, only install it if you need it and trust it
  5. If this is the first time you’ve tried to manage your own DNS, most panels create aa bunch of stuff for you; at the very least you need to create a CNAME record for ‘www’ and point it to ‘@’ (so that http://www.website.com also works as well as just website.com)

I think that’s everything for now. If I think of anything else I’ll pop it in a little soundbite.

About Facading and Dependency Injection

Good evening everyone.

I’ve been meaning to write a post about this for a little while, it’s a common discussion point within developers working on enterprise level software. The argument regarding dependency injection vs. facades; how they’re applied and how they relate to most software systems you work with.

The first point I would like to make on this particular topic is that they are both useful, they both have their place.

For those of you who are not exactly aware of what these concepts are I have broken it down a little bit below; but if you’re not comfortable or familiar with the topic it probably is worth doing some research on before you make your mind up.

In essence, dependency injection is where you declare your class usages in a single place as a dependency, those dependencies are injected into where they are used. The concept behind this is that should you wish to swap out your dependency it should be easy. Take the following example;

I have a class named PermissionChecker. This class is used throughout many Controllers in an MVC framework. Whenever I want to check if someone has a permission I simply call upon functionality within the permission checker, which returns me a true or false.

The basic problem here is when I want to change the PermissionChecker, which contains all of my permission-based logic, it is painful, because I have to go through and replace or remove every instance of the PermissionChecker and hope that it doesn’t break anything, and I test everything heavily.

This is where Dependency Injection (DI) comes in. I create an instance of my PermissionChecker (PC) within the DI container. There are various open source DI solutions out there from Pimple to the DependencyInjector by Symfony. Anyway, the long and short of it is that the declaration of the usage of PC is in a single place, so should I wish to change it for SupremePermissionChecker (SPC) then it is easy and done in a single place, assuming the interfaces through which it is accessed remain the same.

This is the perfect solution to an age old problem!

But beware! There is an issue with DI, in my experience, and that is that either you become so dependent on it that it becomes difficult to utilise functionality and you end up writing lots of code which, in practicality, does very little. Or potentially you can end up over injecting, some parts of your system will be tightly coupled to one another by design, the issue with DI here simply compounds this issue, because the tightly coupling in a lot of days makes the DI redundant; as you couldn’t swap out the dependency even if you wanted to.

Now please don’t, for a second, think that I am slating dependency injection, because I’m really not. I think it is a very useful tool, it’s not my tool of choice but it does have a lot of advantages.

Additionally; don’t think the next thing I am going to mention is mutually exclusive to Dependency Injection either, they can be used in tandem without any issues.

So a facade is where you create a class which hides more complex logic behind it. Taking the same example I might have a PermissionChecker class which facades other functionality, for example fetching a user, fetching permission records which it can cross reference against the permission we are checking into.

In essence a facade is a way of abstracting your functionality a layer further. You have your system which utilises your facade, and your facade utilises whatever it needs to.

The reason I prefer this methodology, personally, is because you end up with all of your facades talking to one another. Which makes your Controllers very readable as you end up with something not dissimilar to:

if ( $permissionChecker->hasPermission(‘make-payment’) ){

$paymentThing->makePayment( $account, $sortCode );

}

Which I feel is very “English” in that it’s quite easy to read it and understand what’s going on. Additionally the advantage, for me, is that if Developer A (DA) and Developer B (DB) are both working on functionality within the same version it is easy. DA can be modifying whatever he wants in PC whilst DB can be happily working away on changing the payment gateway PaymentThing is using, as long as the interfaces remain the same then it’s all good.

To add to the mix, remember where I said earlier the two weren’t mutually exclusive? PaymentThing and PermissionChecker could well have both been dependency injected into their current context, so they could be switched out.

My only real question there is: why? If my functionality is all hidden behind facades, which provide easy interfaces to use, if ever I want to change them or do anything with them, I do it behind the facade and I’m fine. With that in mind, does Dependency Injection become a bit overkill?

Both of these concepts, as with all concepts, methodologies and rules within web development, are designed to make maintaining my software easier, rather than having invisible dependencies and entangled tight coupling which is impossible to defuse. That’s a developer’s nightmare when someone says “can’t we just take the payment functionality from X project and put it into Y project?”.

I think we have to sometimes be careful in web development and programming in general that we’re not making more work for ourselves. If facades are working for the separation of concerns, does it matter if the dependencies are scattered through the code, because somewhere that once needed to make a payment will always need to make a payment, and if that requirement changes, the code will need to change anyway, so we cut out the bit that says make a payment. We don’t have to remove the dependency or do anything else.

When I want to include payments into a new set of functionality on the site all I have to do is utilise the use statement to bring in the Facade, which handles everything else, and use the functionality contained therein.

Maybe I am missing the point and the value. And I would rather have Dependency Injection than nothing, but I would rather have an easy-to-utilise set of Facades, than have to Dependency Inject everything I want to use, and remember to rip it out when I don’t.

I’d love to hear other developers’ opinions on this one though, as it is something of a bone of contention in the community.

Take care all!
Johno